Sons de viola (Portuguese Edition)

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I have, also, reason to believe that humble-bees are indispensable to the fertilisation of the heartsease Viola tricolor , for other bees do not visit this flower. It is not the key, but it will open it at a pinch. Then there are to be eschscholtzias, dahlias, sunflowers, zinnias, scabiosa, portulaca, yellow violas , yellow stocks, yellow sweet-peas, yellow lupins--everything that is yellow or that has a yellow variety.

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The year-old Scot struggled to maintain his performance levels after breaking Viola 's serve twice to win the first set in 51 minutes. Murray knocked out of Rafa Nadal Open. The year-old Scot struggled to maintain his performance levels after breaking Viola 's serve twice to win the first set in 51 minutes, but never recovered after falling behind in the second.

Uncomfortable Andy Murray bows out in Mallorca as he loses to world No A police spokesman said to the"We are investigating after a 44 year-old man was assaulted in Viola Street in Bootle yesterday, Sunday 7th July. Man suffers head injury in vicious Bootle street attack; Two men seen running away after tea-time attack in Viola Street. The latter aims primarily to identify and demonstrate how Michelangelo and Viola , although born centuries apart, and working in radically different media, both shared what Max Weber called an 'elective affinity' for exploring, cognitively as well as through their art, such fundamental questions as the nature of being, the transience of life, and the search for greater meaning beyond mere mortality.

Dictionary browser? Full browser? It was during this period of changing tastes and clashing cultures that the Portuguese codices for viola were compiled. Although the three codices present a fair number of Iberian dance-types, from the time the Coimbra codex was compiled to the more recent Conde de Redondo codex one sees a decline of those forms in the face of imported models, such as the minuet and, to a lesser extent, the contredanse.

On the other hand, emphasizing a strong connection with seventeenth-century musical ideals, most of the Iberian forms and dance- types found in the Coimbra and Gulbenkian codices are based on early techniques of composing over a ground: a bass line, a harmonic progression, a melody, or a combination of these.

They usually coincide with another typical feature of Iberian passacalles--the use of binary meter, known in Spain as a compasillo. If some of these indications may refer simply to the style of those settings, there are pieces actually drawn from Italian sources. Besides that, the last eight measures are replaced by a different six-measure ending, and a four-measure ritornello is suppressed in order to finish the piece in B minor.

It is not clear whether the Coimbra version was reworked by a Portuguese viola player, or was based on an already modified source, now lost. Yet, it is odd that contemporary literary sources give so little information about it, when so many Portuguese musical settings have survived.


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The number of settings is reduced dramatically in the Gulbenkian codex--four for viola and two for bandurra, and the dance disappears completely in the Conde de Redondo book. The narrowing into a single harmonic scheme seems to have happened outside Portugal, and during the first decades of seventeenth century, as explained by Richard Hudson in his comprehensive study of the form.

See also Esses, Dance and instrumental diferencias, The first one, found in earlier sources up to the late seventeenth century, is a flexible scheme. It is found in both minor and major mode and allows some harmonic variety in the form of substitute chords. The later folia pattern--sometimes called folias italianas in Iberian sources--is the model for the three pieces called Alanella in the Coimbra codex, two in the first mode and one in second mode, roughly D minor and G minor.

Another piece in first mode, Meninas de Montemor f. Portuguese keyboard sources also feature settings of the later folia. In the northern city of Braga, a late-seventeenth-century organ codex, the Ms of the Arquivo Distrital, has at least three settings ff.

You look like a mangana from Madrid, Who is here teaching how to dance [bailar]. Maurorum Saltatio, commonly known as Chacouna. Maurorum Saltatio, vulgo Chacouna. The hypothesis of a Moorish origin of this dance, as also the Mexican one, was never confirmed. The basis of four notes to which he refers is the descending tetrachord, a very common bass line in late-seventeenth-century chaconnes, obtained by inverting some chords of the basic harmonic progression I V6 vi IV6 V.

The Coimbra chacoinas, bearing the title chacoina italiana, might well be Italian imports. In Italy the ciaccona was more popular as an instrumental piece--like the passacaglia--than as a dance-type. Even on the Iberian peninsula the chacona, several times condemned by religious and secular authorities as an immodest dance,15 went out of fashion as a dance long before the Coimbra codex was compiled.

A stylized French choreography still remained by that time, and, exported back to the Iberian peninsula, was probably what the Frenchman Bluteau had in mind.


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One of these settings ff. ROSALES How meddling are these castrated ones [capones]; it is not enough that they sing so extrovertedly [desenfadados], now they also want to be danced [bailados]. Could something castrated [capona] be good? Only one, which they call the chacona. Sola una, que llaman la chacona. In his commentary p. It also should be noted that the capona is often associated with another dance, the mariona, and a certain resemblance of meaning exists here also at a non-musical level.

C94 of the Oxford Bodleian Library. One should remember that the Piccinini family had strong ties with Spain. The Coimbra codex displays one example of the mariona type, called capona Italiana f. Besides these, three other caponas do not fit easily in any of these groups, being most likely a later development. Another setting, entitled simply mariona, in G major, appears in the section of foreign music of the Coimbra codex f.

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In its simplest form, the formula comprises a descending melodic line over a harmonic bass see example 5. The Coimbra and Gulbenkian codices also feature other pavanas in the second, third and fourth modes G minor, E major, A minor , following the same basic scheme, but allowing more passing harmonies. The Coimbra codex has a setting of the pavaniglia, also known as pavana italiana ff.

It is a very serious [well ordered, well arranged; orig. He som muito grave, em instrumentos de corda. The Coimbra codex has six settings of the dance-type sarao, three in major and three in minor mode. Spanish dance treatises, such as the works by Esquivel Navarro and Minguet e Yrol explain the several dance steps mentioned by Bluteau. Several Italian guitar books in alfabeto notation feature its harmonic background detached from the melody and lyrics. That seems to be the case with the Coimbra versions too, since they are included in a section of foreign music--mostly Italian--within the codex.

The setting is placed in the section of imported music within the Coimbra codex, probably copied from a foreign source. One of the earliest known settings, by Athanasius Kircher, already displays the same general harmonic and melodic features of later guitar versions. There is no documented evidence of that association in Portugal.

The Coimbra version is structured as variations, featuring an initial motive that appears in many instrumental settings. Example 5. Pedro told her, kissing the snow [her skin? It was the priest who was coming, Had he arrived a little before, Since he knows grammar, He could have caught them in bad Latin [old expression, meaning to take unawares, flat-footed].

But hearing some noise at the door, Where a civil guard was knocking, One and another flew away Fearing the teeth of some wild boar. It was Baeta, the mischievous one, Had he arrived a little before, Since Baeta knows Latin, He could have caught them in bad Latin [see above]. Era pois o Baeta travesso, Que se um pouco dantes aportara ali, Como sabe latim o Baeta, Pudiera cogerlos en un mal Latim. Five other settings in the Coimbra codex and one in the Gulbenkian codex bring a different melodic-harmonic scheme for the first part see example 5.

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The wedding took place in Siena, after which the couple went in a honeymoon trip to Naples, from where the Portuguese envoy Lopo de Almeida wrote to the king Afonso V, the brother of the bride Prince Rossano, son-in-law of the king, asked us to dance, since he was dancing too, and so all of us who knew how to dance were dancing.

When it came to the alta, all five danced alone, and after that was the chacota led by your sister. Some decades later two settings for viola would appear in the Coimbra and Gulbenkian compilations. Except for some glosas, or variations in the Gulbenkian codex, there is nothing distinctive about these settings, which coincide melodically and harmonically with earlier Spanish versions by Sanz and Ruiz de Ribayaz.

Except for the Coimbra book, sectional and free-composed pieces are also identified by terms such as obra, passo the term may also mean a section of a fantasia or a passacalle , consonancias, and partida. It is significant that by the time the codex was compiled the fantasia was already out of fashion in most of Europe. In fact, the type of fantasia found in the Coimbra and Gulbenkian codices does not correspond to the new musical ideals of simplicity and clarity that begin to take shape particularly in Italy by the late s.

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As evidence of changing times, the later Lisbon codex contains only two fantasias. One of these f. Another example of internal concordance in the Portuguese viola codices is a fantasia by Marques in the Coimbra codex ff. The Gulbenkian version lacks an introduction, but is considerably larger, encompassing several sections. Some of these are based on motives that appear in other fantasias of the Coimbra codex, which could imply some reassembling work, similar to what happens in some batalhas. Considering factors such as structure, compositional devices, stylistic features, and overall dimensions, the fantasias of the Coimbra codex--and to a lesser extent those in the volume at the Gulbenkian Foundation--form a heterogeneous group.

A small number of fantasias approach the model of arpeggiata toccatas by Kapsperger and Granata. More sophisticated harmonically, exploring unusual progressions, is a fantasia de falsas, by Barros f. It is customary to compose for the viola some pieces that use several positions [of the left hand], which, multiplied and set in all eight modes, are called fantesias, because they are according to the fantasies and ideas of their authors.

Several fantasias, caprichos, and batalhas of the Coimbra codex are based on Italian models. This is sometimes revealed by the title itself fantasia italiana, batalha italiana. In other cases, a comparison with Italian contemporary or earlier works may reveal a stylistic connection. The capricio on f. The Iberian peninsula had a strong tradition of keyboard batalhas--mainly for organ--but some guitar settings also survived.

Mostly using material from this piece, the batalhas in the Gulbenkian codex show exemplarily how elements from foreign sources could be reassembled and reworked into new pieces of music. Table 5. Ne 1 ff. While Divina Filis is identified as a minuet in both Portuguese sources, the Madrid manuscript calls it a tonada, which is a designation usually given to small solo vocal pieces.

However, no lyrics are found in either of these sources. The origin of the term is still controversial, 49 Stein, Songs of mortals, The only Portuguese musical setting--in the Gulbenkian codex, entitled Matachim de la Reyna f.

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Those who danced it with perfection were rare. However, these settings do not include vocal parts or lyrics. However, at least in one case--the cantata humana Al son de la cadena P-Ln F. The Conde de Redondo codex also features some minuetes cantados--a very common hybrid form in the Iberian peninsula during the eighteenth century, whose popularity may help explain the setting of Portuguese lyrics to another courtly dance, the Aimable Vainqueur see below.